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The Shoulder Is A Ball And Socket Joint And Is Made Up Of The Following Three (3) Bones;

1.      The Humerus Bone aka Upper Arm Bone.

2.      The Scapula aka Shoulder Blade.

3.      The Clavicle aka Collarbone (Connected To The End Of The Scapula aka Acromion).

The Shoulder Is Held Together By;

1.      Muscles.

2.      Ligaments (connect bone to bone).

3.      Tendons (connect muscle to bone).

The Shoulder Is Cushioned And Lubricated By A Bursa Which Is A Fluid Filled Sac.

The Upper Arm Bone (Humerus) Is Seated In The Socket Of The Shoulder Blade By The Rotator Cuff Muscles Which Are;

1.      Supraspinatus – Abducts or elevates the shoulder joint.

2.      Infraspinatus – Externally rotates the shoulder joint.

3.      Teres Minor – Externally rotates the shoulder joint.

4.      Subscapularis – Depresses the head of the humerus during elevation of the arm.



Approximately 8 million people were treated for shoulder problems, including shoulder and upper arm sprains and strains. Of the approximately 8 million people who were treated for shoulder problems, more than half (4 million dollars) were treated for rotator cuff problems. Most problems in the shoulder involve the;

1.      Muscles.

2.      Ligaments (connect bone to bone).

3.      Tendons (connect muscle to bone).

Shoulder injuries are frequently caused by athletic activities that involve excessive, repetitive overhead motion such

1.      Pitching.

2.      Swimming.

3.      Tennis.

4.      Weighlifting.

Shoulder injuries can also occur during everyday activities such as;

1.      Gardening.

2.      Hanging Pictures.

3.      Lifting Children.

4.      Washing Walls.

Shoulder problems are grouped into the following categoriees;

1.      Instability – shoulder joints moves or is forced out of its normal position.

2.      Impingment – excessive rubbing of the shoulder muscles against the Acromion.

Shoulder problems can be minor or serious with the following symptoms;

1.      Pain.

2.      Swelling.

3.      Loss Of Range Of Motion.

4.      Numbness.

5.      Tingling.

6.      Weakness.


1.      Bruises aka Contusions – tearing or rupturing of small blood vessels under the skin.

2.      Bursitis – Inflammation of the sac that cushions and lubricates the shoulder joint.

3.      Bicipital Tendinitis – Inflammation of the Bicep Muscle Tendon.

4.      Pulled Muscle(s) Strains.

5.      Ligament(s) Sprains.

6.      Tendon(s) Strains.

7.      Nerve Injuries – Brachial Plexus Neuropathy.

8.      Shoulder Separation – When the outer end of the clavicle separates from the acromion.

9.      Torn Rotator Cuff – Damage to one or more of the four tendons that cover the shoulder joint.

10.  Subluxation – Shoulder Bone(s) out of their normal position.


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